Browse Tag: watermarking

Pravega Watermarking Support 

Pravega Watermarking Support 

Tom Kaitchuck and Flavio Junqueira

Motivation 

Stream processing broadly refers to the ability to ingest data from unbounded sources and processing such data as it is ingested. The data can be user-generated, like in social networks or other online application, or machine-generated, like in server telemetry or sensor samples from IoT and Edge applications [1]. 

Stream processing applications typically process data following the order in which the data is produced. Following a total order strictly is often not practically possible for a couple of important reasons: 

  1. The source is not a single element as it might comprise multiple users, servers, or gateways; 
  2. Inherent choices of the application design might cause items to be ingested and processed out of order. 

Consequently, the order in Pravega and similar systems refers to the order in which the data is ingested and determined by some concept like keys connecting elements of the data stream. 

The ability to process data following the order of generation, even if only loosely, is one of the most interesting aspects of stream processing as it enables an application to establish temporal correlations about the different events. For example, an application is capable of asking questions such as how many distinct users signed in during the last hour or how many distinct sensors have reported an anomaly in the past 10 minutes. To implement and answer such queries, the application must be able to produce results for every reporting period, every hour in the first example and every 10 minutes in the second. These reporting periods are often referred to as time windows [2].  Continue Reading